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Toulmin model

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The Toulmin Model is a way of analysing an argument. It was developed by Stephen Toulmin. According to the Toulmin Model, the parts of an argument are the claim, data, warrant, backing, qualifier, rebuttal, and reservation. Though it is not required, the Toulmin model is highly favored on the English language AP examination for the argumentation essay.

General Form

The Toulmin model has been deemed effective because unlike the syllogism, which is true in every case, the Toulmin model takes context into account and not all conditions of the argument need to be true to make it viable.

Parts of an argument

Claim

Thesis.

Data

Backup for the claim.

Warrant

Shows why data supports claim.

Backing

Utilizing additional facts or reasoning to legitimize the warrant.

Qualifier

The qualifier is an adverbial phrase or word that diminishes the strength of a claim <ref>Inch, Warnick, Endres, Critial Thinking and Communication, 39.</ref>

Rebuttal

A counter argument

Reservation

Limitations of the argument which specifically invalidate the warrant.

References

<references/>

External links

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