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Debate: Gay adoption

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-===Tradition: Should promotion of the traditional nuclear family be avoided?===+===Natural: Is being brought up by a same sex couple natural?===
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-====Yes==== +====Yes====
-*'''The factors predicting healthy adjustment are the same for traditional and nontraditional families, and children or adolescents in nontraditional families are just as capable of healthy adjustment as those in traditional settings.''' [http://www.glad.org/uploads/docs/cases/2009-11-17-doma-aff-lamb.pdf "Affidavit - United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts" Michael Lamb, Ph.D. 2009]: "Nontraditional families constitute the vast majority of families in the United States today. Society’s early assumptions about the superiority of the traditional family form have been challenged by the results of empirical research. Since the end of the 1980’s, as a result, it has been well established that children and adolescents can adjust just as well in nontraditional settings as in traditional settings."+*'''[[Argument:Children do not need distinct male and female parental role-models| Children do not need distinct male and female parental role-models]]''' What children need first is love, compassion, and care from their parents. In addition, children are highly influenced by their social environment as much as their parents, making it unreasonable to place such a high importance on the attributes that parents display.
- +
-*'''Nuclear families are failing; can hardly be held up against gay adoption.''' Of all families in Australia, 22% of them are single parent families. Few will fully establish a child's potential. Over 45,000 Australian marriages will end in divorce, few of these will be families. So, it is wrong to promote the nuclear family when it is failing so badly, and it is wrong to hold-out on gay adoption in favor of the nuclear family, for the same reason. +
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-===Natural: Is being brought up by a same sex couple natural?===+===Tradition: Should promotion of the traditional nuclear family be avoided?===
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-====Yes====+====Yes====
- +*'''A changing society should not cling to traditional family models.''' Society is changing, and the traditional idea of the nuclear family with married mother and father is no longer the only acceptable alternative. The reason that many countries are beginning to award legal rights to gay couples is because the stability of such relationships is now recognised. There is no reason, therefore, why such couples cannot provide a stable and loving upbringing for children.
-*'''[[Argument:Children do not need distinct male and female parental role-models| Children do not need distinct male and female parental role-models]]''' What children need first is love, compassion, and care from their parents. In addition, children are highly influenced by their social environment as much as their parents, making it unreasonable to place such a high importance on the attributes that parents display. +
 +*'''[[Argument: Traditional/nontraditional families equally capable of child-rearing| Traditional/nontraditional families equally capable of child-rearing]]''' [http://www.glad.org/uploads/docs/cases/2009-11-17-doma-aff-lamb.pdf "Affidavit - United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts" Michael Lamb, Ph.D. 2009]: "Nontraditional families constitute the vast majority of families in the United States today. Society’s early assumptions about the superiority of the traditional family form have been challenged by the results of empirical research. Since the end of the 1980’s, as a result, it has been well established that children and adolescents can adjust just as well in nontraditional settings as in traditional settings."
 +*'''Nuclear families are failing; can hardly be held up against gay adoption.''' Of all families in Australia, 22% of them are single parent families. Few will fully establish a child's potential. Over 45,000 Australian marriages will end in divorce, few of these will be families. So, it is wrong to promote the nuclear family when it is failing so badly, and it is wrong to hold-out on gay adoption in favor of the nuclear family, for the same reason.
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====No==== ====No====
- +*'''Opposing gay adoption preserves traditional family as ideal for child-rearing.''' Just as married couples receive tax benefits and unmarried mothers may suffer cuts in welfare, legal prohibition of adoption by gays is a natural step towards this ideal. The traditional nuclear family is still an ideal that should be clung to, and which deserves the protection and motivation of the state. Evolution and nature has shown that the natural development of the young is aided by both these influences.
- +
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====Yes==== ====Yes====
-''If we take the assumption that it is not natural...''+ 
 +*'''"Natural" label doesn't imply a preferable choice.''' Humanity and society engage in many acts that could very easily be described as unnatural, or artificial. This doesn't mean that these are in any was worse. Natural is not equal to superior, and artificial is not equal to inferior.
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====No==== ====No====
-*'''"Natural" label doesn't imply a preferable choice.''' Humanity and society engage in many acts that could very easily be described as unnatural, or artificial. This doesn't mean that these are in any was worse. Natural is not equal to superior, and artificial is not equal to inferior.+ 
 +*'''[[Argument: Children do better with mother and father role models| Children do better with mother and father role models]]''' - Children benefit from a balance of male and female, differentiated role models. The unique characteristics of men and women are important to impart on children. Same-sex marriage fundamentally undermines this balanced approach to child-rearing.
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====Yes==== ====Yes====
-*'''Some babies are born with a predisposition to homosexuality''' (both human and in other races), and their upbringing will not be affect their sexuality. Attempting to suppress this genetic predisposition has resulted in great misery for many people. Rather, we should accept this and look to embrace all gay people fully – which must include celebrating gay role models, especially as responsible parents.+*'''[[Argument:The sexuality of parents has no effects on a child's future life|The sexuality of parents has no effects on a child's future life]]'''. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LGBT_parenting#Support American Psychological Association (Resolution on Sexual Orientation, Parents, and Children)] "There is no scientific evidence that parenting effectiveness is related to parental sexual orientation: lesbian and gay parents are as likely as heterosexual parents to provide supportive and healthy environments for their children"; and "research has shown that the adjustment, development, and psychological well-being of children is unrelated to parental sexual orientation and that the children of lesbian and gay parents are as likely as those of heterosexual parents to flourish."
- +
 +*'''A child’s primary role models are his or her parents.''' Bringing a heterosexual child up in a gay household gives them a distorted view of a minority sexuality, just as a girl brought up by two men would fail to benefit from a feminine influence.
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*'''[[Argument: The relevance of causes of sexual orientation to policy is dubious| The relevance of causes of sexual orientation to policy is dubious]]''' [http://wedding.thejons.net/homework/optional_readings.pdf "Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States : A social science perspective." American Psychologist. 2006] "The relevance of this question to policy is dubious because homosexuality is neither an illness nor a disability, and the mental health professions do not regard a homosexual or bisexual orientation as harmful, undesirable, or requiring intervention or prevention." *'''[[Argument: The relevance of causes of sexual orientation to policy is dubious| The relevance of causes of sexual orientation to policy is dubious]]''' [http://wedding.thejons.net/homework/optional_readings.pdf "Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States : A social science perspective." American Psychologist. 2006] "The relevance of this question to policy is dubious because homosexuality is neither an illness nor a disability, and the mental health professions do not regard a homosexual or bisexual orientation as harmful, undesirable, or requiring intervention or prevention."
 +
 +*'''Some babies are born with a predisposition to homosexuality''' (both human and in other races), and their upbringing will not be affect their sexuality. Attempting to suppress this genetic predisposition has resulted in great misery for many people. Rather, we should accept this and look to embrace all gay people fully – which must include celebrating gay role models, especially as responsible parents.
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====Yes==== ====Yes====
 +*'''[[Argument:Homosexual parenting is just as good as heterosexual parenting| Homosexual parenting is just as good as heterosexual parenting]]''' Numerous studies indicate that homosexual parenting has proven equally capable as heterosexual parenting.
 +
 +*'''[[Argument: There is no scientific basis for concluding that gay and lesbian parents are any less fit or capable than heterosexual parents, or that their children are any less psychologically healthy and well adjusted.| There is no scientific basis for concluding that gay and lesbian parents are any less fit or capable than heterosexual parents, or that their children are any less psychologically healthy and well adjusted.]]''' [http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/courts/supreme/highprofile/documents/Amer_Psychological_Assn_Amicus_Curiae_Brief.pdf "Case No. S147999 in the Supreme Court of the State of California, In re Marriage Cases Judicial Council Coordination Proceeding No. 4365, Application for leave to file brief amici curiae in support of the parties challenging the marriage exclusion, and brief amici curiae of the American Psychological Association, California Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, National Association of Social Workers, and National Association of Social Workers, California Chapter in support of the parties challenging the marriage exclusion"]: "Although it is sometimes asserted in policy debates that heterosexual couples are inherently better parents than same-sex couples, or that the children of lesbian or gay parents fare worse than children raised by heterosexual parents, those assertions find no support in the scientific research literature."
 +
 +*'''[[Argument: Lesbian and gay parents are every bit as fit and capable as heterosexual parents and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents| Lesbian and gay parents are every bit as fit and capable as heterosexual parents and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents]]''' [http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/courts/supreme/highprofile/documents/Amer_Psychological_Assn_Amicus_Curiae_Brief.pdf "Case No. S147999 in the Supreme Court of the State of California, In re Marriage Cases Judicial Council Coordination Proceeding No. 4365, Application for leave to file brief amici curiae in support of the parties challenging the marriage exclusion, and brief amici curiae of the American Psychological Association, California Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, National Association of Social Workers, and National Association of Social Workers, California Chapter in support of the parties challenging the marriage exclusion"]: "The scientific research that has directly compared outcomes for children with gay and lesbian parents with outcomes for children with heterosexual parents has been remarkably consistent in showing that lesbian and gay parents are every bit as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents. Amici emphasize that the abilities of gay and lesbian persons as parents and the positive outcomes for their children are not areas where credible scientific researchers disagree. Statements by the leading associations of experts in this area reflect professional consensus that children raised by lesbian or gay parents do not differ in any important respects from those raised by heterosexual parents. No credible empirical research suggests otherwise."
-*'''[[Argument:Homosexual parenting is just as good as heterosexual parenting| Homosexual parenting is just as good as heterosexual parenting]]''' Numerous studies indicate that homosexual parenting has proven equally capable as heterosexual parenting. +*'''The American Academy of Pediatrics and all of the major professional organizations with expertise in child welfare have issued reports and resolutions in support of gay and lesbian parental rights.''' [http://www.psychology.org.au/Assets/Files/LGBT-Families-Lit-Review.pdf "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Parented Families - A Literature Review prepared for The Australian Psychological Society"]: Judith Stacey, of New York University: "Rarely is there as much consensus in any area of social science as in the case of gay parenting, which is why the American Academy of Pediatrics and all of the major professional organizations with expertise in child welfare have issued reports and resolutions in support of gay and lesbian parental rights."
-*'''[[Argument:The quality of child-rearing in social groups is not a criteria for adoption|The quality of child-rearing in social groups is not a criteria for adoption]].''' [http://www.slate.com/id/2061789/William Saletan. "Adopting Premises. The sneaky debate over legalizing adoptions by gay couples." Slate.com. Feb. 7, 2002] - "Suppose, for example, there's more suicide, depression, promiscuity, and domestic violence among blacks than among whites. Would such findings justify a ban on adoptions by blacks? If not, why would they justify a ban on adoptions by gays?"+*'''[[Argument: Quality of child-rearing in social groups is no criteria for adoption|The quality of child-rearing in social groups is not a criteria for adoption]].''' [http://www.slate.com/id/2061789/William Saletan. "Adopting Premises. The sneaky debate over legalizing adoptions by gay couples." Slate.com. Feb. 7, 2002] - "Suppose, for example, there's more suicide, depression, promiscuity, and domestic violence among blacks than among whites. Would such findings justify a ban on adoptions by blacks? If not, why would they justify a ban on adoptions by gays?"
*'''Children are currently being responsibly reared by gay couples''', where one of the partners is a biological parent. Allowing adoption by the other merely confers legal rights on an already successful, if informal, family model. *'''Children are currently being responsibly reared by gay couples''', where one of the partners is a biological parent. Allowing adoption by the other merely confers legal rights on an already successful, if informal, family model.
- 
-*'''[[Argument:The sexuality of parents has no effects on a child's future life|The sexuality of parents has no effects on a child's future life]]'''. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LGBT_parenting#Support American Psychological Association (Resolution on Sexual Orientation, Parents, and Children)] "There is no scientific evidence that parenting effectiveness is related to parental sexual orientation: lesbian and gay parents are as likely as heterosexual parents to provide supportive and healthy environments for their children"; and "research has shown that the adjustment, development, and psychological well-being of children is unrelated to parental sexual orientation and that the children of lesbian and gay parents are as likely as those of heterosexual parents to flourish." 
*'''[[Argument: Opponents of gay-adoption must prove heterosexuals make better parents| Opponents of gay-adoption must prove heterosexuals make better parents]]''' The burden of proof is on opponents of gay adoption to prove that homosexuals make worse parents. In the absence of such proof, it is unjust to restrict the rights of homosexuals to adopt. *'''[[Argument: Opponents of gay-adoption must prove heterosexuals make better parents| Opponents of gay-adoption must prove heterosexuals make better parents]]''' The burden of proof is on opponents of gay adoption to prove that homosexuals make worse parents. In the absence of such proof, it is unjust to restrict the rights of homosexuals to adopt.
- 
- 
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====Yes==== ====Yes====
 +
 +*'''[[Argument: Children and adolescents raised by gay and lesbian parents are not more teased than children and adolescents of heterosexual parents.| Children and adolescents raised by gay and lesbian parents are not more teased than children and adolescents of heterosexual parents.]]''' [http://www.equalrightsfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/2010-01-15-Perry-Trial-Day-05-Lamb-Zia-mini.pdf "Perry v. Schwarzenegger Trial-Day 05" Michael Lamb, Ph.D.]: "The studies that have explored this in more detail show that while children with gay or lesbian parents are more likely to be teased about their family configuration, they aren't more likely to be teased in general. Children tease one another for a variety of reasons. Children get teased because their ethnic group is different, because they have curly hair, because they are fat, because they have a funny accent. Children can be very cruel to one another. And when it's possible to tease somebody about the sexual orientation of their parents, they may be teased for that but that doesn't mean that they are more likely to be teased overall."
*'''[[Argument: Homophobia is wrong so should not be used against gay adoption| Homophobia is wrong so should not be used against gay adoption]]''' Couples from ethnic minorities are not barred from adoption even in racist areas. Only through the full inclusion of gays in society and all its institutions can we hope to overcome prejudice. *'''[[Argument: Homophobia is wrong so should not be used against gay adoption| Homophobia is wrong so should not be used against gay adoption]]''' Couples from ethnic minorities are not barred from adoption even in racist areas. Only through the full inclusion of gays in society and all its institutions can we hope to overcome prejudice.
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-===Pro/con videos=== 
- 
-|- 
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-====Yes====  
-<youtube>1o4YUY4feys</youtube>  
- 
- 
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-====No==== 
- 
-|- 
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- 
===Pro/con resources=== ===Pro/con resources===
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 +|-
 +|colspan="2" width="45%" bgcolor="#F2F2F2" style="border:1px solid #BAC5FD;padding:.4em;padding-top:0.5em;"|
 +===Pro/con videos===
 +
 +|-
 +|width="45%" bgcolor="#FFFAE0" style="border:1px solid #BAC5FD;padding:.4em;padding-top:0.5em;"|
 +====Yes====
 +<youtube>1o4YUY4feys</youtube>
 +
 +
 +|width="45%" bgcolor="#F2FAFB" style="border:1px solid #BAC5FD;padding:.4em;padding-top:0.5em;"|
 +====No====
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==See also== ==See also==
-*[[Debate: Same sex marriage ban]]+*[[Debate: Gay marriage]]
-==External links==+==External links and resources==
*["Gay adoption: A new take on the American family". CNN article. June 27, 2007] *["Gay adoption: A new take on the American family". CNN article. June 27, 2007]
* [http://www.aclu.org/lgbt/parenting/index.html ACLU: Gay and Lesbian Rights] * [http://www.aclu.org/lgbt/parenting/index.html ACLU: Gay and Lesbian Rights]

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Should gay couples be given the same legal rights as heterosexuals in adopting children?

Background and context

At present, the world and individual countries are as divided with regard to adoption as to other area of gay rights. As of 2000, four states in the USA (Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi and Utah) have specifically outlawed gay adoption, as have some Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway, and Iceland) that show an otherwise lenient attitude to same-sex relationships. By contrast, the National Adoption Week in the UK in October 2000 saw a drive to encourage gay couples to adopt, in order to find homes for the thousands of children seeking parents. The 2002 Adoption and Children Act allowed unmarried couples in England and Wales, including same sex partners to apply for adoption jointly.

Contents

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Natural: Is being brought up by a same sex couple natural?

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Yes

  • Children do not need distinct male and female parental role-models What children need first is love, compassion, and care from their parents. In addition, children are highly influenced by their social environment as much as their parents, making it unreasonable to place such a high importance on the attributes that parents display.


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No

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Tradition: Should promotion of the traditional nuclear family be avoided?

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Yes

  • A changing society should not cling to traditional family models. Society is changing, and the traditional idea of the nuclear family with married mother and father is no longer the only acceptable alternative. The reason that many countries are beginning to award legal rights to gay couples is because the stability of such relationships is now recognised. There is no reason, therefore, why such couples cannot provide a stable and loving upbringing for children.
  • Nuclear families are failing; can hardly be held up against gay adoption. Of all families in Australia, 22% of them are single parent families. Few will fully establish a child's potential. Over 45,000 Australian marriages will end in divorce, few of these will be families. So, it is wrong to promote the nuclear family when it is failing so badly, and it is wrong to hold-out on gay adoption in favor of the nuclear family, for the same reason.
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No

  • Opposing gay adoption preserves traditional family as ideal for child-rearing. Just as married couples receive tax benefits and unmarried mothers may suffer cuts in welfare, legal prohibition of adoption by gays is a natural step towards this ideal. The traditional nuclear family is still an ideal that should be clung to, and which deserves the protection and motivation of the state. Evolution and nature has shown that the natural development of the young is aided by both these influences.
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Natural: Does something being "Natural" imply that it is preferable?

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Yes

  • "Natural" label doesn't imply a preferable choice. Humanity and society engage in many acts that could very easily be described as unnatural, or artificial. This doesn't mean that these are in any was worse. Natural is not equal to superior, and artificial is not equal to inferior.
[Add New]

No

  • Children do better with mother and father role models - Children benefit from a balance of male and female, differentiated role models. The unique characteristics of men and women are important to impart on children. Same-sex marriage fundamentally undermines this balanced approach to child-rearing.
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Gay influence: Do gay parents influence children to become homosexual?

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Yes

  • A child’s primary role models are his or her parents. Bringing a heterosexual child up in a gay household gives them a distorted view of a minority sexuality, just as a girl brought up by two men would fail to benefit from a feminine influence.
[Add New]

No

  • Some babies are born with a predisposition to homosexuality (both human and in other races), and their upbringing will not be affect their sexuality. Attempting to suppress this genetic predisposition has resulted in great misery for many people. Rather, we should accept this and look to embrace all gay people fully – which must include celebrating gay role models, especially as responsible parents.
[Edit]
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Quality: Are homosexual parents of equal quality in raising children?

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Yes

  • The American Academy of Pediatrics and all of the major professional organizations with expertise in child welfare have issued reports and resolutions in support of gay and lesbian parental rights. "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Parented Families - A Literature Review prepared for The Australian Psychological Society": Judith Stacey, of New York University: "Rarely is there as much consensus in any area of social science as in the case of gay parenting, which is why the American Academy of Pediatrics and all of the major professional organizations with expertise in child welfare have issued reports and resolutions in support of gay and lesbian parental rights."
  • Children are currently being responsibly reared by gay couples, where one of the partners is a biological parent. Allowing adoption by the other merely confers legal rights on an already successful, if informal, family model.
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No


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Alternatives: Can gay parenting be superior to some of current alternatives?

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Yes

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No

  • Gay marriage should be compared against average marriages; not worst case ones. All of the arguments negating this question are compared against the dysfunctions occurring in worst case heterosexual marriages.


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Homophobia: Will the children of gay parents be able to deal with societal homophobia?

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Yes

  • Children raised by homosexuals may become more tolerant individuals. American Academy of Pediatrics - "growing up with parents who are lesbian or gay may confer some advantages to children. They have been described as more tolerant of diversity,"


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No

  • Children adopted by gays are subjected to homophobia/prejudices Homophobic language and behaviour is still common in society. Placing a child too young to have an opinion of their own in the care of a gay couple exposes them to this prejudice, and subjects them to ridicule or violence. Whatever ideal we might have, the psychological and physical welfare of the child must come first.
  • Homosexuals teach a tolerance toward dysfunctionality. Homosexuals inherently champion every dysfunctional cause as a so-called right, the result of which has infected all of society with tolerating dysfunction


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Religion: Is gay adoption allowable in the face of religious opposition to gay marriage?

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Yes


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No

  • There are some rules to religion. Everyone in the world who has faith in religion must always follow certain religion rules. In fact, none of the major religions explicitly states that homosexuality is something positive, or at least tolerated.
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Pro/con resources

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Yes

"Europe: Gay Adoption Ruling Advances Family Equality". Human Rights Watch. January 24th, 2008

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No


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Pro/con videos

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Yes


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No

See also

External links and resources

Books:

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