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Debate: China "one child" policy

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====Yes==== ====Yes====
 +*'''[[Argument: Extreme overpopulation warrants the extreme "one child" policy| Extreme overpopulation warrants the extreme "one child" policy]]''' It is fair to call China's "one child" policy "extreme". But, it is justified in the simple sense that China faces an extreme overpopulation crisis. Desperate times call for desperate measures. The Chinese government cannot be blamed for taking these aggressive, but necessary measures.
-*'''[[Argument: China's "one child" policy is key to stabilizing global population growth| China's "one child" policy is key to stabilizing global population growth]]''' Global population growth is considered by many to be a crisis. With 1.3 billion people, a fifth of the world's population, China must be a major part of the solution to the global population crisis. "One child" is a pillar of this global solution. +*'''[[Argument: "One child" generally improves living standards of Chinese| "One child" generally improves living standards of Chinese]]''' [http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/cegv/eng/bjzl/t176938.htm "Family Planning in China". Information Office of the State Council Of the People's Republic of China. 1995]: "Family planning has promoted the improvement of the quality of the Chinese population in terms of education and health as well as the overall development of the people."
-*'''China would have far too many children if not for "one child".''' China estimates that it has three to four hundred million fewer people today with the one child policy than it would have had otherwise.+*'''Chinese can simply pay a fine to have an extra child.''' In many regions of China, families that really want a second child can have one, and simply have to pay a fine. But, in general, Chinese regional authorities do not go so far as to absolutely ban having a second child. Therefore, the status quo merely discourages and disincentivizes having a second child.
-*'''[[Argument: Ending China's "one-child" policy would cause a population spike| Ending China's "one-child" policy would cause a population spike]]''' ''Joseph Chamie, former head of the United Nations population division and now head of the Center for Migration Studies'' - "Today the fertility level in China is around 1.7 children per woman. if China were to relax its one-child policy, then it’s reasonable to expect that fertility would rise. How much? Well, if fertility increased to replacement level of 2.1 (an increase of just under a half a child), which is not unreasonable given desired family size, the country’s annual number of births would increase by nearly 30 percent, or approximately five million additional births. By midcentury, this would add up to nearly a quarter-billion more Chinese than currently projected by the U.N. And given China’s impact on the environment, especially greenhouse gas emissions, this change of policy clearly portends a great deal."[http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/02/28/an-end-to-one-child-families-in-china/]+*'''[[Argument: China outlaws physically forcing women to have abortions| China outlaws physically forcing women to have abortions]]''' While China previously forced some women to have abortions, it no longer does so, and expressly forbids the practice.
-*'''One-child forestalls problems associated with overpopulation.''' The reduction in fertility rate and thus population size reduced the severity of problems that come with overpopulation, like epidemics, slums, overwhelmed social services (health, education, law enforcement, and more), and strain on the ecosystem from abuse of fertile land and production of high volumes of waste.+*'''[[Argument: China plans on ending "one child" policy in the future| China plans on ending "one child" policy in the future]]''' ''Zhao Baige, vice minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission'' - "The one-child policy was the only choice we had, given the conditions when we initiated the policy. So as things develop, there might be some changes to the policy, and relevant departments are considering this."[http://articles.latimes.com/2008/mar/04/world/fg-onechild4]
 + 
 +*'''[[Argument: China gives exemptions from "one child" in special circumstances| China gives exemptions from "one child" in special circumstances]]'''
 + 
 +*'''Chinese understand their success depends on "one child".''' Many Chinese people are able to have a second child and are willing to pay the fine. Yet, they choose not to do so on the philosophical grounds that it is better for the country to not have a second child.
 + 
 +*'''[[Argument: Modern Chinese people actually prefer only one child| Modern Chinese people actually prefer only one child]]'''
-*'''[[Argument: "One child" changed tradition that more children is better| "One child" changed tradition that more children is better]]''' The symbolism of "one child" is very important in ending the conventional belief that more children is better. 
|WRITE CONTENT FOR THE "YES" BOX ABOVE THIS CODE width="45%" bgcolor="#F2FAFB" style="border:1px solid #BAC5FD;padding:.4em;padding-top: 0.5em;"| |WRITE CONTENT FOR THE "YES" BOX ABOVE THIS CODE width="45%" bgcolor="#F2FAFB" style="border:1px solid #BAC5FD;padding:.4em;padding-top: 0.5em;"|
 +====No====
-====No====+*'''"One child" policy violates right to reproduce and found family.''' The one-child policy has been criticized by human rights advocacy groups and Western religious advocacy groups who consider it contrary to the human rights of reproduction. Many governments, including the United State government, argue that the policy violates a right to "found a family", which is protected under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
-*'''Condoms/sex-ed better population control than "one child"''' [http://www.economist.com/node/18651512 "China's population: The most surprising demographic crisis." The Economist. May 5th 2011]: "coercive controls had little to do with lowering fertility, which would have happened anyway. Countries that simply improved access to contraceptives—Thailand and Indonesia, for instance—did as much to reduce fertility as China, with its draconian policies. Taiwan, which the government in Beijing regards as an integral part of China, cut its fertility rate as much as China without population controls."+*'''[[Argument: China often forces abortions on women, violating human rights| China often forces abortions on women, violating human rights]]''' Chinese officials often force abortions on women against their will. This persists despite the fact that it has been banned by China's central government.
-*'''[[Argument: "One child" is only partly responsible for reducing China's fertility rates| "One child" is only partly responsible for reducing China's fertility rates]]''' ''Hasketh, Lu, and Xing'' observed: "the policy itself is probably only partially responsible for the reduction in the total fertility rate. The most dramatic decrease in the rate actually occurred before the policy was imposed. Between 1970 and 1979, the largely voluntary "late, long, few" policy, which called for later childbearing, greater spacing between children, and fewer children, had already resulted in a halving of the total fertility rate, from 5.9 to 2.9. After the one-child policy was introduced, there was a more gradual fall in the rate until 1995, and it has more or less stabilized at approximately 1.7 since then." +*'''[[Argument: China's forced sterilization is cruel, violates rights| China's forced sterilization is cruel, violates rights]]''' [http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-03/2006-03-07-voa38.cfm?CFID=11111969&CFTOKEN=48224307 Heda Bayron. "Experts: China's One-Child Population Policy Producing Socio-Economic Problems". VOAnews. 7 Mar. 2006] - Four days after Mrs. Yao gave birth in October, local officials descended on the Yao household in China's Fujian province and dragged her and her husband to a hospital. There, the couple was forced to undergo sterilization.
-*'''"One child" is excessive, alternatives for reducing fertility rates exist.''' +:Mr. Yao, 31, is angry at the heavy-handed action.
-*'''India has achieved population sustainability without "one child".''' As argued above, there are ways to achieve population-size sustainability without implementing a "one child" policy. There are alternative means. India is a good example of this, having achieved broadly similar declines in fertility without state coercion or occasional brutality.+:"My wife just had a 4 1/2 kilogram baby four days earlier. It is wrong to ask her to do another operation," he said. "At least wait until six months when she recovered. What they have done was very cruel."
 +
 +*'''[[Argument China's "one child" policy violates natural law| China's "one child" policy violates natural law]]''' ''Ye Tingfang, a professor at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences:'' "the one-child limit is too extreme. It violates nature’s law and, in the long run, will lead to mother nature’s revenge."
-*'''It doesn't appear to be working so far.''' So far no major population decreases have occured under the "one child" policy. This policy would need to take place for hundreds of years to work, but that would not be fair. It has shown minor changes, but the overpopulation problem in China still hugely exists. 
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-===Fairness/rights: Is the policy fair to Chinese citizens, rights? ===+===Population: Is the policy key to controlling China's population? ===
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====Yes==== ====Yes====
-*'''[[Argument: Extreme overpopulation warrants the extreme "one child" policy| Extreme overpopulation warrants the extreme "one child" policy]]''' It is fair to call China's "one child" policy "extreme". But, it is justified in the simple sense that China faces an extreme overpopulation crisis. Desperate times call for desperate measures. The Chinese government cannot be blamed for taking these aggressive, but necessary measures. 
-*'''[[Argument: "One child" generally improves living standards of Chinese| "One child" generally improves living standards of Chinese]]''' [http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/cegv/eng/bjzl/t176938.htm "Family Planning in China". Information Office of the State Council Of the People's Republic of China. 1995]: "Family planning has promoted the improvement of the quality of the Chinese population in terms of education and health as well as the overall development of the people."+*'''[[Argument: China's "one child" policy is key to stabilizing global population growth| China's "one child" policy is key to stabilizing global population growth]]''' Global population growth is considered by many to be a crisis. With 1.3 billion people, a fifth of the world's population, China must be a major part of the solution to the global population crisis. "One child" is a pillar of this global solution.
-*'''Chinese can simply pay a fine to have an extra child.''' In many regions of China, families that really want a second child can have one, and simply have to pay a fine. But, in general, Chinese regional authorities do not go so far as to absolutely ban having a second child. Therefore, the status quo merely discourages and disincentivizes having a second child. +*'''China would have far too many children if not for "one child".''' China estimates that it has three to four hundred million fewer people today with the one child policy than it would have had otherwise.
-*'''[[Argument: China outlaws physically forcing women to have abortions| China outlaws physically forcing women to have abortions]]''' While China previously forced some women to have abortions, it no longer does so, and expressly forbids the practice. +*'''[[Argument: Ending China's "one-child" policy would cause a population spike| Ending China's "one-child" policy would cause a population spike]]''' ''Joseph Chamie, former head of the United Nations population division and now head of the Center for Migration Studies'' - "Today the fertility level in China is around 1.7 children per woman. if China were to relax its one-child policy, then it’s reasonable to expect that fertility would rise. How much? Well, if fertility increased to replacement level of 2.1 (an increase of just under a half a child), which is not unreasonable given desired family size, the country’s annual number of births would increase by nearly 30 percent, or approximately five million additional births. By midcentury, this would add up to nearly a quarter-billion more Chinese than currently projected by the U.N. And given China’s impact on the environment, especially greenhouse gas emissions, this change of policy clearly portends a great deal."[http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/02/28/an-end-to-one-child-families-in-china/]
-*'''[[Argument: China plans on ending "one child" policy in the future| China plans on ending "one child" policy in the future]]''' ''Zhao Baige, vice minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission'' - "The one-child policy was the only choice we had, given the conditions when we initiated the policy. So as things develop, there might be some changes to the policy, and relevant departments are considering this."[http://articles.latimes.com/2008/mar/04/world/fg-onechild4]+*'''One-child forestalls problems associated with overpopulation.''' The reduction in fertility rate and thus population size reduced the severity of problems that come with overpopulation, like epidemics, slums, overwhelmed social services (health, education, law enforcement, and more), and strain on the ecosystem from abuse of fertile land and production of high volumes of waste.
- +
-*'''[[Argument: China gives exemptions from "one child" in special circumstances| China gives exemptions from "one child" in special circumstances]]''' +
- +
-*'''Chinese understand their success depends on "one child".''' Many Chinese people are able to have a second child and are willing to pay the fine. Yet, they choose not to do so on the philosophical grounds that it is better for the country to not have a second child.+
- +
-*'''[[Argument: Modern Chinese people actually prefer only one child| Modern Chinese people actually prefer only one child]]'''+
 +*'''[[Argument: "One child" changed tradition that more children is better| "One child" changed tradition that more children is better]]''' The symbolism of "one child" is very important in ending the conventional belief that more children is better.
|WRITE CONTENT FOR THE "YES" BOX ABOVE THIS CODE width="45%" bgcolor="#F2FAFB" style="border:1px solid #BAC5FD;padding:.4em;padding-top: 0.5em;"| |WRITE CONTENT FOR THE "YES" BOX ABOVE THIS CODE width="45%" bgcolor="#F2FAFB" style="border:1px solid #BAC5FD;padding:.4em;padding-top: 0.5em;"|
-====No====  
-*'''"One child" policy violates right to reproduce and found family.''' The one-child policy has been criticized by human rights advocacy groups and Western religious advocacy groups who consider it contrary to the human rights of reproduction. Many governments, including the United State government, argue that the policy violates a right to "found a family", which is protected under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. +====No====
-*'''[[Argument: China often forces abortions on women, violating human rights| China often forces abortions on women, violating human rights]]''' Chinese officials often force abortions on women against their will. This persists despite the fact that it has been banned by China's central government.+*'''Condoms/sex-ed better population control than "one child"''' [http://www.economist.com/node/18651512 "China's population: The most surprising demographic crisis." The Economist. May 5th 2011]: "coercive controls had little to do with lowering fertility, which would have happened anyway. Countries that simply improved access to contraceptives—Thailand and Indonesia, for instance—did as much to reduce fertility as China, with its draconian policies. Taiwan, which the government in Beijing regards as an integral part of China, cut its fertility rate as much as China without population controls."
-*'''[[Argument: China's forced sterilization is cruel, violates rights| China's forced sterilization is cruel, violates rights]]''' [http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-03/2006-03-07-voa38.cfm?CFID=11111969&CFTOKEN=48224307 Heda Bayron. "Experts: China's One-Child Population Policy Producing Socio-Economic Problems". VOAnews. 7 Mar. 2006] - Four days after Mrs. Yao gave birth in October, local officials descended on the Yao household in China's Fujian province and dragged her and her husband to a hospital. There, the couple was forced to undergo sterilization.+*'''[[Argument: "One child" is only partly responsible for reducing China's fertility rates| "One child" is only partly responsible for reducing China's fertility rates]]''' ''Hasketh, Lu, and Xing'' observed: "the policy itself is probably only partially responsible for the reduction in the total fertility rate. The most dramatic decrease in the rate actually occurred before the policy was imposed. Between 1970 and 1979, the largely voluntary "late, long, few" policy, which called for later childbearing, greater spacing between children, and fewer children, had already resulted in a halving of the total fertility rate, from 5.9 to 2.9. After the one-child policy was introduced, there was a more gradual fall in the rate until 1995, and it has more or less stabilized at approximately 1.7 since then."
-:Mr. Yao, 31, is angry at the heavy-handed action.+*'''"One child" is excessive, alternatives for reducing fertility rates exist.'''
-:"My wife just had a 4 1/2 kilogram baby four days earlier. It is wrong to ask her to do another operation," he said. "At least wait until six months when she recovered. What they have done was very cruel."+*'''India has achieved population sustainability without "one child".''' As argued above, there are ways to achieve population-size sustainability without implementing a "one child" policy. There are alternative means. India is a good example of this, having achieved broadly similar declines in fertility without state coercion or occasional brutality.
- +
-*'''[[Argument China's "one child" policy violates natural law| China's "one child" policy violates natural law]]''' ''Ye Tingfang, a professor at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences:'' "the one-child limit is too extreme. It violates nature’s law and, in the long run, will lead to mother nature’s revenge."+
 +*'''It doesn't appear to be working so far.''' So far no major population decreases have occured under the "one child" policy. This policy would need to take place for hundreds of years to work, but that would not be fair. It has shown minor changes, but the overpopulation problem in China still hugely exists.

Revision as of 18:10, 11 May 2011

Is China's "one child" policy sensible?

Background and context

The one-child policy is the population control policy (or planned birth policy) of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The Chinese government introduced the policy in 1979 to alleviate the social and environmental problems of China. The policy is controversial both within and outside China because of the issues it raises; because of the manner in which the policy has been implemented; and because of concerns about negative economic and social consequences. The policy is enforced at the provincial level through fines that are imposed based on the income of the family and other factors. However, there are still many citizens that continue to have more than one child, despite this policy. In February 2008 Chinese Government official Wu Jianmin said that the one-child policy would be reconsidered during the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in March 2008, but at that time a representative of China's National Population and Family Planning Commission said that the policy would remain in place for at least another decade.

Demographics: Is China's "one child" policy demographically sound?

Yes

  • "One child" policy can be modified to improve demographics. Some provinces allow families where each parent was an "only child" to have two children. In 2007, except Henan province, all other provinces in PRC adopted this new adaption[46].
  • Removing "one child" would see more babies born at same time. If the laws were removed today, in about nine months time a flood of babies would be born in China. People would undo any good made by the laws and use their right to start having as many babies as possible.
  • When people have back their rights, they will use them. When the laws are removed, the people of China will start having lots of babies - that's bound to happen and will undo the help made to China's overpopulation problems.


No


Fairness/rights: Is the policy fair to Chinese citizens, rights?

Yes

  • Extreme overpopulation warrants the extreme "one child" policy It is fair to call China's "one child" policy "extreme". But, it is justified in the simple sense that China faces an extreme overpopulation crisis. Desperate times call for desperate measures. The Chinese government cannot be blamed for taking these aggressive, but necessary measures.
  • Chinese can simply pay a fine to have an extra child. In many regions of China, families that really want a second child can have one, and simply have to pay a fine. But, in general, Chinese regional authorities do not go so far as to absolutely ban having a second child. Therefore, the status quo merely discourages and disincentivizes having a second child.
  • China plans on ending "one child" policy in the future Zhao Baige, vice minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission - "The one-child policy was the only choice we had, given the conditions when we initiated the policy. So as things develop, there might be some changes to the policy, and relevant departments are considering this."[1]
  • Chinese understand their success depends on "one child". Many Chinese people are able to have a second child and are willing to pay the fine. Yet, they choose not to do so on the philosophical grounds that it is better for the country to not have a second child.


No

  • "One child" policy violates right to reproduce and found family. The one-child policy has been criticized by human rights advocacy groups and Western religious advocacy groups who consider it contrary to the human rights of reproduction. Many governments, including the United State government, argue that the policy violates a right to "found a family", which is protected under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Mr. Yao, 31, is angry at the heavy-handed action.
"My wife just had a 4 1/2 kilogram baby four days earlier. It is wrong to ask her to do another operation," he said. "At least wait until six months when she recovered. What they have done was very cruel."
  • China's "one child" policy violates natural law Ye Tingfang, a professor at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences: "the one-child limit is too extreme. It violates nature’s law and, in the long run, will lead to mother nature’s revenge."


Population: Is the policy key to controlling China's population?

Yes

  • China would have far too many children if not for "one child". China estimates that it has three to four hundred million fewer people today with the one child policy than it would have had otherwise.
  • Ending China's "one-child" policy would cause a population spike Joseph Chamie, former head of the United Nations population division and now head of the Center for Migration Studies - "Today the fertility level in China is around 1.7 children per woman. if China were to relax its one-child policy, then it’s reasonable to expect that fertility would rise. How much? Well, if fertility increased to replacement level of 2.1 (an increase of just under a half a child), which is not unreasonable given desired family size, the country’s annual number of births would increase by nearly 30 percent, or approximately five million additional births. By midcentury, this would add up to nearly a quarter-billion more Chinese than currently projected by the U.N. And given China’s impact on the environment, especially greenhouse gas emissions, this change of policy clearly portends a great deal."[2]
  • One-child forestalls problems associated with overpopulation. The reduction in fertility rate and thus population size reduced the severity of problems that come with overpopulation, like epidemics, slums, overwhelmed social services (health, education, law enforcement, and more), and strain on the ecosystem from abuse of fertile land and production of high volumes of waste.

No

  • Condoms/sex-ed better population control than "one child" "China's population: The most surprising demographic crisis." The Economist. May 5th 2011: "coercive controls had little to do with lowering fertility, which would have happened anyway. Countries that simply improved access to contraceptives—Thailand and Indonesia, for instance—did as much to reduce fertility as China, with its draconian policies. Taiwan, which the government in Beijing regards as an integral part of China, cut its fertility rate as much as China without population controls."
  • "One child" is only partly responsible for reducing China's fertility rates Hasketh, Lu, and Xing observed: "the policy itself is probably only partially responsible for the reduction in the total fertility rate. The most dramatic decrease in the rate actually occurred before the policy was imposed. Between 1970 and 1979, the largely voluntary "late, long, few" policy, which called for later childbearing, greater spacing between children, and fewer children, had already resulted in a halving of the total fertility rate, from 5.9 to 2.9. After the one-child policy was introduced, there was a more gradual fall in the rate until 1995, and it has more or less stabilized at approximately 1.7 since then."
  • "One child" is excessive, alternatives for reducing fertility rates exist.
  • India has achieved population sustainability without "one child". As argued above, there are ways to achieve population-size sustainability without implementing a "one child" policy. There are alternative means. India is a good example of this, having achieved broadly similar declines in fertility without state coercion or occasional brutality.
  • It doesn't appear to be working so far. So far no major population decreases have occured under the "one child" policy. This policy would need to take place for hundreds of years to work, but that would not be fair. It has shown minor changes, but the overpopulation problem in China still hugely exists.


Gender: Does China's "one child" improve gender equality?

Yes

  • One-child policy improves health services for women. It is reported that the focus of China on population control helps provide a better health service for women and a reduction in the risks of death and injury associated with pregnancy. At family planning offices, women receive free contraception and pre-natal classes. Help is provided for pregnant women to closely monitor their health. In various places in China, the government rolled out a ‘Care for Girls’ programme, which aims at eliminating cultural discrimination against girls in rural and underdeveloped areas through subsidies and education.[3]
  • "One child" liberates female productivity, improves gender equality Women have traditionally been the primary caregivers for children; however, with fewer children, they have more time to invest in their careers, increasing both their personal earnings and the national GDP. However, critics of the policy have asserted that such a gain may eventually be cancelled out by the increased burden of caring for two elderly parents singlehandedly.


No

  • "One child" causes abortion of daughters, demographic shift China, like many other Asian countries, has a long tradition of preferring sons to daughters. Many argue that the one-child policy induces many families to use selective abortion, abandon female infants, and even kill female infants under the influence of the son preference. Some families even kill or starve the female infant and then try again for a male child. The commonly accepted explanation for son preference is that sons in rural families may be thought to be more helpful in farm work. Both rural and urban populations have economic and traditional incentives, including widespread remnants of Confucianism, to prefer sons over daughters. Sons are preferred as they provide the primary financial support for the parents in their retirement, and a son's parents typically are better cared for than his wife's. In addition, Chinese traditionally view that daughters, on their marriage, become primarily part of the groom's family.


Children: Is the one-child policy good for children?

Yes

  • "One child" policies improve China for young generations. "One child" policies improve China by making its population size more sustainable and by, subsequently, improving the living standards of Chinese citizens now and in the future. This is certainly good for young Chinese.
  • It prevents sibling rivalry. A lot of children have sibling rivalry with their brothers or sisters. A lot of children also hate their siblings or are bullied by them. This policy prevents that.
  • Parents with one child will care more for that child. If parents have one child, they will look after them and care for them more than if there were three or four children. The child would in most cases be loved more and get more personal attention.

No

  • China's "one child" policy fosters spoiled children. Some parents may over-indulge their only-child. The media referred to the indulged children in one-child families as "little emperors". Since the 1990s, some people worry this will result in a higher tendency toward poor social communication and cooperation skills among the new generation, as they have no siblings at home. However, no social studies have investigated the ratio of these over-indulged children and to what extent they are indulged. With the first generation of one-child policy children (those born in the 1980s) reaching adulthood, such worries are reduced.
  • China's "one child" policy causes "gendercide" According to The Economist [4], at least 100 million girls have disappeared in China. They were either "aborted, killed, or neglected to death"- and the number is rising. "...[C]ouples want two children—or, as in China, are allowed only one—they will sacrifice unborn daughters to their pursuit of a son. That is why sex ratios are most distorted in the modern, open parts of China and India."

Support networks: Does the "one child" policy foster family support networks?

Yes

  • The children will still have families. Children born with no brothers or sisters will still have a family. They will have a mum and dad, grandparents and possibly aunts, uncles and cousins.


No

  • The "one child" policy undermines family support networks. As the one-child policy begins to near its next generation, one adult child is left with having to provide support for his or her two parents and four grandparents. This leaves the older generation with more of a dependency on retirement funds or charity in order to have support. If personal savings, pensions, or state welfare should fail, then the most senior citizens would be left entirely dependent upon their very small family or neighbors for support. If a child can't care for their parents and grandparents, or if that child can't survive, the oldest generation could find itself destitute.


Economics: Is the one child policy economically beneficial?

Yes

  • China's "one child" policy increases individual savings. The individual savings rate has increased since the introduction of the One Child Policy. This has been partially attributed to the policy in two respects. First, the average Chinese household expends fewer resources, both in terms of time and money, on children, which gives many Chinese more money with which to invest. Second, since young Chinese can no longer rely on children to care for them in their old age, there is an impetus to save money for the future.[27]
  • "One child" policy maintains a steady employment rate. With overpopulation, it is common that a population will see rising unemployment rates.


No

  • Fees for second child are economically damaging. A U.S. official named Dewey testified that parents who bear a second child are required to pay a "social compensation fee", which ranges from half of the local average annual income to ten times that.
An associate professor of economics at Columbia University, Lena Edlund, has found that a 1% increase in the ratio of males to females equates to an increase in violent and property crime of as much as 6%, "suggesting that male sex ratios may account for 28% to 38% of the rise in crime." Ms. Edlund, who studied crime rates in China between 1988 and 2004, discussed her findings at a conference earlier this month at New York University."


Environment: Is the "one child" policy good for the environment?

Yes

In solving the pollution and the environment, China advocates this policy in helping reduce their carbon dioxide output. The government suggested that every human body exhale too much carbon dioxide, and cited statistics that reducing the countries' population would greatly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from human respiration.
  • China's "one child" policy slows the depletion of natural resources.


No

Discrimination: Does China's "one child" policy avoid racism?

Yes

  • This policy is not exactly racist. The "one child" possibly is not racist, it is simply trying to control China's extreme population.

No

Chinese opinion: Where does the Chinese population stand on this issue?

Yes

No


Pro/con resources

Yes

No

Pro/con videos

Yes

No

.

External links and resources

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