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Argument: Capital punishment does not deter crime

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-==Parent debate(s)==+==Parent debate==
*[[Debate:Capital Punishment]] *[[Debate:Capital Punishment]]
==Extended arguments and supporting evidence== ==Extended arguments and supporting evidence==
-===The main body of studies that have concluded that the death penalty deters future criminal acts is frought with technical and conceptual failures===+[http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/FaganTestimony.pdf Jeffrey Fagan, Columbia Law Professor, "Deterrence and the Death Penalty: A Critical Review of the New Evidence", Testimony to the New York State Assembly Standing Committee on Codes and other committees on the Future of Capital Punishment in the State of New York, 1/21/05] - "These new studies [that claim a new evidence supports the conclusion that capital punishment has a positive deterrent effect] are fraught with technical and conceptual errors: inappropriate methods of statistical analysis, failures to consider all the relevant factors that drive murder rates, missing data on key variables in key states, the tyranny of a few outlier states and years, and the absence of any direct test of deterrence. These studies fail to reach the demanding standards of social science to make such strong claims, standards such as replication and basic comparisons with other scenarios. Some simple examples and contrasts, including a careful analysis of the experience in New York State compared to others, lead to a rejection of the idea that either death sentences or executions deter murder.
-*[http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/FaganTestimony.pdf Jeffrey Fagan, Columbia Law Professor, "Deterrence and the Death Penalty: A Critical Review of the New Evidence", Testimony to the New York State Assembly Standing Committee on Codes and other committees on the Future of Capital Punishment in the State of New York, 1/21/05] - "These new studies [that claim a new evidence supports the conclusion that capital punishment has a positive deterrent effect] are fraught with technical and conceptual errors: inappropriate methods of statistical analysis, failures to consider all the relevant factors that drive murder rates, missing data on key variables in key states, the tyranny of a few outlier states and years, and the absence of any direct test of deterrence. These studies fail to reach the demanding standards of social science to make such strong claims, standards such as replication and basic comparisons with other scenarios. Some simple examples and contrasts, including a careful analysis of the experience in New York State compared to others, lead to a rejection of the idea that either death sentences or executions deter murder." 
-===Studies concluding that capital punishment does not have a deterrent effect===+[John Cochran (U of O), Mitchell Chamlin, and Mark Seth. "Deterrence or Brutalization? An Impact Assessment of Oklahoma's Return to Capital Punishment", 1994] - "no evidence of a deterrent or a brutalization effect is found for criminal homicides in general. Similarly, the predicted deterrent effect of the execution on the level of felony murders is not observed."
-*[John Cochran (U of O), Mitchell Chamlin, and Mark Seth. "Deterrence or Brutalization? An Impact Assessment of Oklahoma's Return to Capital Punishment", 1994] - "no evidence of a deterrent or a brutalization effect is found for criminal homicides in general. Similarly, the predicted deterrent effect of the execution on the level of felony murders is not observed."  
-*[http://cad.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/45/4/481 Jon Sorenson, Victoria Brewer, and James Marquart, "Capital Punishment and Deterrence: Examining the Effect of Executions on Murder in Texas", 1999] - "This study tested the deterrence hypothesis in Texas, the most active execution jurisdiction during the modern era. Using monthly observations during 1984 through 1997, both the general relationship between executions and murder rates and the specific relationship between executions and felony murder rates were examined. An initial bivariate relationship between executions and murder rates proved to be spurious when appropriate control variables were included in regression models. Within a context so ideally suited for finding any potential deterrent effects, this study confirmed the results of previous ones that failed to find any evidence of deterrence resulting from capital punishment." 
-*[http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0044-0094(197512)85%3A2%3C187%3ATIODII%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E William J. Bowers, Glenn L. Pierce, "The Illusion of Deterrence in Isaac Ehrlich's Research on Capital Punishment", 1975]  
-===Other sources citing a disconnect between capital punishment and deterrence===+[http://cad.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/45/4/481 Jon Sorenson, Victoria Brewer, and James Marquart, "Capital Punishment and Deterrence: Examining the Effect of Executions on Murder in Texas", 1999] - "This study tested the deterrence hypothesis in Texas, the most active execution jurisdiction during the modern era. Using monthly observations during 1984 through 1997, both the general relationship between executions and murder rates and the specific relationship between executions and felony murder rates were examined. An initial bivariate relationship between executions and murder rates proved to be spurious when appropriate control variables were included in regression models. Within a context so ideally suited for finding any potential deterrent effects, this study confirmed the results of previous ones that failed to find any evidence of deterrence resulting from capital punishment."
-*'''US Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer, 2002'''[http://freenet-homepage.de/dpinfo/judges.htm] - "I note the continued difficulty of justifying capital punishment in terms of its ability to deter crime...Studies of deterrence are, at most, inconclusive"+
-*'''Henry Ford'''[http://www.notable-quotes.com/c/capital_punishment_quotes.html] - "Capital punishment is as fundamentally wrong as a cure for crime as charity is wrong as a cure for poverty."+
-*'''American public:''' A 2004 Gallup Poll found that 6/10 Americans believed that the death penalty "does not act as a deterrent to murder".[http://www.publicagenda.org/issues/major_proposals_detail.cfm?issue_type=crime&list=5] +
-===The death penalty fails as a deterrent because it is inconsistently and very infrequently applied to murder and other crimes===  
-*[http://users.rcn.com/mwood/deathpen.html Hugo Adam Bedau, "The Case Against The Death Penalty" (1992)] - "The death penalty fails as a deterrent for several reasons. Any punishment can be an effective deterrent only if it is consistently and promptly employed. Capital punishment cannot be administered to meet these conditions. Only a small proportion of first-degree murderers is sentenced to death, and even fewer are executed. Although death sentences since 1980 have increased in number to about 250 per year,(1) this is still only 1 per cent of all homicides known to the police.(2) Of all those convicted on a charge of criminal homicide, only 2 percent -- about 1 in 50 -- are eventually sentenced to death.(3) The possibility of increasing the number of convicted murderers sentenced to death and executed by enacting mandatory death penalty laws was ruled unconstitutional in 1976 (Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280).+[http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0044-0094(197512)85%3A2%3C187%3ATIODII%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E William J. Bowers, Glenn L. Pierce, "The Illusion of Deterrence in Isaac Ehrlich's Research on Capital Punishment", 1975]
-===Pre-meditating criminals plan on escaping detection, and that they therefore don't consider being caught, and that they subsequently don't fear receiving capital punishment and aren't deterred:=== 
-*[http://users.rcn.com/mwood/deathpen.html Hugo Adam Bedau, Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University and writing for the ACLU, "The Case Against the Death Penalty", (1992)] - "Persons who commit murder and other crimes of personal violence either premeditate them or they do not. If the crime is premeditated, the criminal ordinarily concentrates on escaping detection, arrest, and conviction. The threat of even the severest punishment will not deter those who expect to escape detection and arrest...Gangland killings, air piracy, drive-by shootings, and kidnapping for ransom are among the graver felonies that continue to be committed because some individuals think they are too clever to get caught."+'''US Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer, 2002'''[http://freenet-homepage.de/dpinfo/judges.htm] - "I note the continued difficulty of justifying capital punishment in terms of its ability to deter crime...Studies of deterrence are, at most, inconclusive"
 + 
 + 
 +'''Henry Ford'''[http://www.notable-quotes.com/c/capital_punishment_quotes.html] - "Capital punishment is as fundamentally wrong as a cure for crime as charity is wrong as a cure for poverty."
 + 
 + 
 +'''American public:''' A 2004 Gallup Poll found that 6/10 Americans believed that the death penalty "does not act as a deterrent to murder".[http://www.publicagenda.org/issues/major_proposals_detail.cfm?issue_type=crime&list=5]
 + 
 + 
 +[http://users.rcn.com/mwood/deathpen.html Hugo Adam Bedau, "The Case Against The Death Penalty" (1992)] - "The death penalty fails as a deterrent for several reasons. Any punishment can be an effective deterrent only if it is consistently and promptly employed. Capital punishment cannot be administered to meet these conditions. Only a small proportion of first-degree murderers is sentenced to death, and even fewer are executed. Although death sentences since 1980 have increased in number to about 250 per year,(1) this is still only 1 per cent of all homicides known to the police.(2) Of all those convicted on a charge of criminal homicide, only 2 percent -- about 1 in 50 -- are eventually sentenced to death.(3) The possibility of increasing the number of convicted murderers sentenced to death and executed by enacting mandatory death penalty laws was ruled unconstitutional in 1976 (Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280).
 + 
 + 
 +[http://users.rcn.com/mwood/deathpen.html Hugo Adam Bedau, Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University and writing for the ACLU, "The Case Against the Death Penalty", (1992)] - "Persons who commit murder and other crimes of personal violence either premeditate them or they do not. If the crime is premeditated, the criminal ordinarily concentrates on escaping detection, arrest, and conviction. The threat of even the severest punishment will not deter those who expect to escape detection and arrest...Gangland killings, air piracy, drive-by shootings, and kidnapping for ransom are among the graver felonies that continue to be committed because some individuals think they are too clever to get caught."
-===Many heinous crimes are not pre-meditated, that they are emotionally-charged and potentially irrational, and therefore that the threat of capital punishment could not have a deterrent effect in these criminals calculations=== 
*[http://users.rcn.com/mwood/deathpen.html Hugo Adam Bedau, Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University and writing for the ACLU, "The Case Against the Death Penalty", (1992)] - "If the crime is not premeditated, then it is impossible to imagine how the threat of any punishment could deter it. Most capital crimes are committed during moments of great emotional stress or under the influence of drugs or alcohol, when logical thinking has been suspended. Impulsive or expressive violence is inflicted by persons heedless of the consequences to themselves as well as to others." *[http://users.rcn.com/mwood/deathpen.html Hugo Adam Bedau, Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University and writing for the ACLU, "The Case Against the Death Penalty", (1992)] - "If the crime is not premeditated, then it is impossible to imagine how the threat of any punishment could deter it. Most capital crimes are committed during moments of great emotional stress or under the influence of drugs or alcohol, when logical thinking has been suspended. Impulsive or expressive violence is inflicted by persons heedless of the consequences to themselves as well as to others."
-===Terrorists can't be deterred=== 
*[http://users.rcn.com/mwood/deathpen.html Hugo Adam Bedau, Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University and writing for the ACLU, "The Case Against the Death Penalty", (1992)] - "Political terrorism is usually committed in the name of an ideology that honors its martyrs; trying to cope with it by threatening death for terrorists is futile. *[http://users.rcn.com/mwood/deathpen.html Hugo Adam Bedau, Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University and writing for the ACLU, "The Case Against the Death Penalty", (1992)] - "Political terrorism is usually committed in the name of an ideology that honors its martyrs; trying to cope with it by threatening death for terrorists is futile.
-===Murderers in the illegal drug trafficking trade are already taking risks with their lives, and therefore that their consideration of their own lives prior to committing a crime is small=== 
*[http://users.rcn.com/mwood/deathpen.html Hugo Adam Bedau, Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University and writing for the ACLU, "The Case Against the Death Penalty", (1992)] - "The attempt to reduce murders in the illegal drug trade by the threat of severe punishment ignores this fact: Anyone trafficking in illegal drugs is already betting his life in violent competition with other dealers. It is irrational to think that the death penalty--a remote threat at best -- will deter murders committed in drug turf wars or by street-level dealers." *[http://users.rcn.com/mwood/deathpen.html Hugo Adam Bedau, Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University and writing for the ACLU, "The Case Against the Death Penalty", (1992)] - "The attempt to reduce murders in the illegal drug trade by the threat of severe punishment ignores this fact: Anyone trafficking in illegal drugs is already betting his life in violent competition with other dealers. It is irrational to think that the death penalty--a remote threat at best -- will deter murders committed in drug turf wars or by street-level dealers."

Revision as of 23:33, 30 June 2008

Parent debate

Extended arguments and supporting evidence

Jeffrey Fagan, Columbia Law Professor, "Deterrence and the Death Penalty: A Critical Review of the New Evidence", Testimony to the New York State Assembly Standing Committee on Codes and other committees on the Future of Capital Punishment in the State of New York, 1/21/05 - "These new studies [that claim a new evidence supports the conclusion that capital punishment has a positive deterrent effect] are fraught with technical and conceptual errors: inappropriate methods of statistical analysis, failures to consider all the relevant factors that drive murder rates, missing data on key variables in key states, the tyranny of a few outlier states and years, and the absence of any direct test of deterrence. These studies fail to reach the demanding standards of social science to make such strong claims, standards such as replication and basic comparisons with other scenarios. Some simple examples and contrasts, including a careful analysis of the experience in New York State compared to others, lead to a rejection of the idea that either death sentences or executions deter murder.


[John Cochran (U of O), Mitchell Chamlin, and Mark Seth. "Deterrence or Brutalization? An Impact Assessment of Oklahoma's Return to Capital Punishment", 1994] - "no evidence of a deterrent or a brutalization effect is found for criminal homicides in general. Similarly, the predicted deterrent effect of the execution on the level of felony murders is not observed."


Jon Sorenson, Victoria Brewer, and James Marquart, "Capital Punishment and Deterrence: Examining the Effect of Executions on Murder in Texas", 1999 - "This study tested the deterrence hypothesis in Texas, the most active execution jurisdiction during the modern era. Using monthly observations during 1984 through 1997, both the general relationship between executions and murder rates and the specific relationship between executions and felony murder rates were examined. An initial bivariate relationship between executions and murder rates proved to be spurious when appropriate control variables were included in regression models. Within a context so ideally suited for finding any potential deterrent effects, this study confirmed the results of previous ones that failed to find any evidence of deterrence resulting from capital punishment."


William J. Bowers, Glenn L. Pierce, "The Illusion of Deterrence in Isaac Ehrlich's Research on Capital Punishment", 1975


US Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer, 2002[1] - "I note the continued difficulty of justifying capital punishment in terms of its ability to deter crime...Studies of deterrence are, at most, inconclusive"


Henry Ford[2] - "Capital punishment is as fundamentally wrong as a cure for crime as charity is wrong as a cure for poverty."


American public: A 2004 Gallup Poll found that 6/10 Americans believed that the death penalty "does not act as a deterrent to murder".[3]


Hugo Adam Bedau, "The Case Against The Death Penalty" (1992) - "The death penalty fails as a deterrent for several reasons. Any punishment can be an effective deterrent only if it is consistently and promptly employed. Capital punishment cannot be administered to meet these conditions. Only a small proportion of first-degree murderers is sentenced to death, and even fewer are executed. Although death sentences since 1980 have increased in number to about 250 per year,(1) this is still only 1 per cent of all homicides known to the police.(2) Of all those convicted on a charge of criminal homicide, only 2 percent -- about 1 in 50 -- are eventually sentenced to death.(3) The possibility of increasing the number of convicted murderers sentenced to death and executed by enacting mandatory death penalty laws was ruled unconstitutional in 1976 (Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280).


Hugo Adam Bedau, Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University and writing for the ACLU, "The Case Against the Death Penalty", (1992) - "Persons who commit murder and other crimes of personal violence either premeditate them or they do not. If the crime is premeditated, the criminal ordinarily concentrates on escaping detection, arrest, and conviction. The threat of even the severest punishment will not deter those who expect to escape detection and arrest...Gangland killings, air piracy, drive-by shootings, and kidnapping for ransom are among the graver felonies that continue to be committed because some individuals think they are too clever to get caught."




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