According to Discovering the World through Debate, a "claim" is "A controversial statement an arguer supports using reason. Claims are divided into four general categories: definitional, descriptive, relational, and evaluative" (247).
Trapp, Robert, et al. Discovering the World through Debate: A Practical Guide to Educational Debate for Debaters, Coaches, and Judges. Third Edition. New York: IDEA Press Books, 2005.