According to Discovering the World through Debate, "cause-and-effect reasoning" is "The type of reasoning that examines the reasons certain actions, events, or conditions (causes) create specific consequences (effects)" (247).
Trapp, Robert, et al. Discovering the World through Debate: A Practical Guide to Educational Debate for Debaters, Coaches, and Judges. Third Edition. New York: IDEA Press Books, 2005.