Argument: The relevance of causes of sexual orientation to policy is dubious
"Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States : A social science perspective." American Psychologist. 2006: "In terms of sexual development, discussions sometimes focus on whether the children of lesbian, gay, or bisexual parents are disproportionately likely to experience same-sex erotic attractions or to identify as gay. The relevance of this question to policy is dubious because homosexuality is neither an illness nor a disability, and the mental health professions do not regard a homosexual or bisexual orientation as harmful, undesirable, or requiring intervention or prevention."
"Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts" American Psychological Association. 2009: "The longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences and the health and mental health professions is that homosexuality per se is a normal and positive variation of human sexual orientation (Bell, Weinberg & Hammersmith, 1981; Bullough, 1976; Ford & Beach 1951 ; Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948; Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard, 1953). Homosexuality per se is not a mental disorder (APA, 1975)."
"Case No. S147999 in the Supreme Court of the State of California, In re Marriage Cases Judicial Council Coordination Proceeding No. 4365, Application for leave to file brief amici curiae in support of the parties challenging the marriage exclusion, and brief amici curiae of the American Psychological Association, California Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, National Association of Social Workers, and National Association of Social Workers, California Chapter in support of the parties challenging the marriage exclusion": "In 1952, when the American Psychiatric Association published its first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, homosexuality was included as a disorder. Almost immediately, however, that classification began to be subjected to critical scrutiny in research funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. That study and subsequent research consistently failed to produce any empirical or scientific basis for regarding homosexuality as a disorder or abnormality, rather than a normal and healthy sexual orientation. As results from such research accumulated, professionals in medicine, mental health, and the behavioral and social sciences reached the conclusion that it was inaccurate to classify homosexuality as a mental disorder and that the DSM classification reflected untested assumptions based on once-prevalent social norms and clinical impressions from unrepresentative samples comprising patients seeking therapy and individuals whose conduct brought them into the criminal justice system." "In recognition of the scientific evidence, the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the DSM in 1973, stating that “homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities.” After thoroughly reviewing the scientific data, the American Psychological Association adopted the same position in 1975, and urged all mental health professionals “to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual orientations.” The National Association of Social Workers has adopted a similar policy."
"Affidavit - United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts" Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D. 2009: "Mainstream mental health professionals and researchers have long recognized that homosexuality is a normal expression of human sexuality. Like heterosexuals, the vast majority of gay and lesbian people function well in society and in their interpersonal relationships. Such functioning includes the capacity to form a healthy and mutually satisfying intimate relationship with another person of the same sex and to raise healthy and well-adjusted children. Being gay or lesbian bears no inherent relation to a person’s ability to perform, contribute to, or participate in society, and poses no inherent obstacle to leading a happy, healthy, and productive life."
"Submission to the Church of England’s Listening Exercise on Human Sexuality." Royal College of Psychiatrists. 2007: "There is now a large body of research evidence that indicates that being gay, lesbian or bisexual is compatible with normal mental health and social adjustment."
"Australian Psychological Society : Sexual orientation and homosexuality" Australial Psychological Society. 2010: "Psychologists, psychiatrists and other mental health professionals agree that homosexuality is not an illness, mental disorder or emotional problem. However negative attitudes towards homosexuality can result in gay and lesbian people having negative thoughts about themselves, which can result in emotional and/or social problems." "In the past, homosexuality was thought to be a mental illness because mental health professionals and society had biased information about homosexuality. Most of that information came from studies that only involved lesbians and gay men undergoing therapy for problems. When researchers examined data about gay people who were not in therapy, the idea that homosexuality was a mental illness was found to be untrue."