Argument: Missile defense systems are offensive in nature
- Debate: European missile defense - con argument.
Lieber, Keir A. / Press, Daryl G. "The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy". Foreign Affairs. 2006 - "the sort of missile defenses that the United States might plausibly deploy would be valuable primarily in an offensive context, not a defensive one -- as an adjunct to a U.S. first-strike capability, not as a standalone shield. If the United States launched a nuclear attack against Russia (or China), the targeted country would be left with a tiny surviving arsenal -- if any at all. At that point, even a relatively modest or inefficient missile-defense system might well be enough to protect against any retaliatory strikes, because the devastated enemy would have so few warheads and decoys left."