Argument: Going to top universities is more important than good grades
Extended argument and supporting evidence
- Bowen and Bok, The Shape of the River, 63, 114, 144. They argue that, in the schools they studied, the better the institution a student entered, irrespective of their academic credentials, the more likely he was to graduate, continue on to further education, earn a good income, and "succeed". The extension of these conclusions is that Affirmative Action is necessary in advances disadvantaged minorities. It also counter the claim that Affirmative Action "mismatches" students with schools where they can't keep up with the work load and competition. The point is that even if they can't keep up and perhaps finish in the bottom rungs of their class, it doesn't matter; the more important factor is that they attended a top university, not whether or not they performed well there.
- David Wilkins and G. Mitu Gulati, “Why Are There So Few Black Lawyers in Corporate Law Firms: An Institutional Analysis,” California Law Review, 84 (May 1996), 493-618. - Demonstrates that elite schools are, indeed, sending kids into elite circles in society.